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Best Practices

Stages of Educational Technology Implementation

CEO Forum on Education and Technology

The best work on Stages of Technology Implementation was the CEO Forumís School Technology and Readiness (STaR) Chart , which was developed circa 1997. This chart summarizes the STaR Chartís criteria for Early Tech, Developing Tech, Advanced Tech, and Target Tech stages. Also see my 2003 update of the Target Tech indicator category into four sub-stages: Ubiquitous, Early Network Effects, Significant Network Effects, and Replication and Dissemination.


Students per Computer connected to Internet

% of Rooms & Offices connected to Internet

Stage Characteristic

Early Tech

More than 10

More than 25%; Dial-up on some

Beginnings. Little student or teacher use.

Developing Tech

10 or less

50% or more; Direct connectivity

Early implementation mainly by pioneer teachers. Some student use, 3-4 times weekly.

Advanced Tech

5 or less

75% or more; Direct connectivity and Adequate Bandwidth

Moderate to large numbers of computers for both teachers and students, daily use, isolated by class and grade. Some common uses and personal applications.

Target Tech

1 to 1

100% Direct connectivity and Adequate Bandwidth

- Digital content, online courses.
- Anytime, anywhere professional development,
- Integration across all courses and subjects.
- Mastery by students of 21st century skills.
- 100% alignment of standards, curriculum, and assessment.
- 100% integrate digital strategies in assessment.
- Measure 100% of the entire range of 21st Century skills.